Blog 2021 12 12 How do you search for your ancestor?

I have written and spoken many times about researching the family members for all hints.  As we are looking for specific ancestors, we often find clues in other family documents.  This week I want to look at some Courthouse examples.

Want might we learn from Deeds?

Let’s say you are looking for proof of a man you believe has a daughter Susan who married a James M. Turner.  As you read a land deed you see where your ancestor’s property borders “his son-in-law James M. Turner”.  You now have found your second validation.  We so often overlook the description of the property and who the neighbors are.

I have seen many times in both North and South Carolina land records, where they list some of the histories of the property which might include a relative by name.  It may also list a previous owner as a grandparent or father-in-law.

What might we find in estate records?

I already wrote about a case where we learn the names of the adult children and the daughter’s husbands in the estate records.  But there can sometimes be many other things we can learn from estates.

Often the Last Will & Testament may state that a bequeathal is made for the offspring of a deceased son or daughter.  I have also seen where the husband of a childless couple leaves everything to his wife and his wife in turn left everything to nephews and nieces.  While many may believe that particular couple had several children in the early 1700s, it would have been against the statutes for the father to give his wife everything and neglect a son.  While he might be able to ignore a daughter, the eldest son by most laws entitled him to no less than one-third of the estate and at times more.

Again, as I have written in the past, if the estate is open for several years you may learn who has died, married, remarried, and additional grandchildren.  Never neglect researching every aspect of the estate.

When the executor or executrix (or administrator) is challenged can be enlightening where it states specific reasons.

What about Colonial and early American Courts?

Reading the historic Court Minute Book can show us many things about our ancestors.  Did you know that it was illegal in many places to absent yourself from the Parish Church?  If you were a poor mother with underage children and no husband, the courts may step in and take your children and apprentice them out to some other family.  Maybe not even a part of the same family.

Even in colonial times, we were a litigious society and you may find that your ancestor was either suing someone else or being the defendant in a lawsuit.  We often see roads being petitioned, laid out, and men assigned to build them, and your ancestor might be among those listed or whose property is named.  This is another place you might find familial relationships.

If your ancestor ran an Inn or a Tavern they required a license and a bond and it was recorded in the order book.  These were eventually moved to other courts.  Also, marriage Bonds were recorded in the courts whereas marriage Banns were recorded mainly in the churches.

Don’t forget the taxes

Be sure to look for any property tax and remember, it was not just on land.  They were taxed on livestock and certain property.  If confused by persons with the same name use the militia districts as the tax records should align with the census records.

Blog 2021 11 12 Take advantage of those Free Days on Search Sites

Every year, all of the major genealogy research sites will offer free days such as’s recent free access to military records for Veteran’s Day.  Many of these run through midnight on a Sunday or Monday and that is usually midnight Mountain Time (for all the Ancestry-owned sites), or wherever the company headquarters is located.

Here are my recommendations for taking full advantage of those days.

First, examine what types of records they typically make available during these days (military, death records, etc.).

Second, determine what records you want that fall into these categories and prioritize the order of research.

Third, determine whether there is a local library that can be used anytime by you so you make the best use of those days when they come around and not get documents you might already have access to.

Fourth, watch for the announcements.

Fifth, sign in as soon as they become available and begin researching.  Besides downloading the document or documents, be sure to capture all of the information for the proper citation of the record(s).

Sixth, mark this item off your to-do list.

Seventh, update your list and await the next opportunity.

Keep researching and good luck!


Blog 2021 10 15 Are you making these mistakes, part III?

This is the final week on common mistakes.


Not properly understanding what your DNA testing is telling you is another common mistake.  While a large portion of what DNA is providing you are suggestions, sometimes it can be hard facts.  The specific example I am speaking of pertains to a prominent family surname here in Cobb County, Georgia.  The Cobb County Blackwell family Haplogroup is R1B, my client is R1A.  That means there is no Blackwell family connection for at least 1,000 years.  Nevertheless, many would still keep researching that line instead of walking away.

One of the biggest mistakes many make is always wanting to find quick answers even though the process can be very time-consuming.  We will take the time to go through countless index books and look at other people’s online trees but will you take the time to read Court Minute Books and other court or local records?  Many of the early American and Colonial Court Minute Books are not indexed and require reviewing page by page.  During the heart of the Covid Pandemic shut down, when there was no place to go if you wanted to, gave me the time to go page by page through 10 year’s of minute book records from a Georgia County in the early 1800s and finally find actual documentation linking a father to three of his sons.  We knew he was the father but there was no direct evidence, until now.

Along this same line, you may need to order records from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) which may take a long time and cost some money to obtain.  But the information those records may provide may contain a lot of useful information once it arrives.  You should make every effort to obtain the records, whether you order directly from NARA or through a third-party organization like Twisted Twigs on Gnarled Branches.  Going back to an earlier paragraph concerning military records, right now, I am waiting for NARA to reopen and allow Civil War Pension Records to be copied to determine what happened to an Illinois Civil War veteran.  People have him and his family in Minnesota, Iowa, Kentucky, and other places simply because of the common name.  Those records should point me in the direction he went.

Another common mistake is forgetting that boundaries have changed over time.  Has anyone heard about the state of Franklin?  While it never got approved by Congress, it was in what is now northeast Tennessee.  One of the first governors of the State of Delaware died in the same house he was born in, only it was Cecil County, Maryland when he was born and New Castle County, Delaware when he died.  You need to be sure of any boundary changes and look at what government entity controlled it when the event or events occurred but be sure to check all locations.

I trust as you continue on your journey towards finding your ancestors, you remember some of these and avoid them.

Blog 2021 10 08 Are you making these mistakes, part II?

I started this topic last week and will complete my current thoughts next week.

I’ll start with a secret about genealogy researchers who charge by the hour.  We absolutely love being given a family tree with no siblings, just the direct ancestral line.  Care to know why?  Because we will then charge you to add all of the siblings so we can do a proper and thorough investigation.  You simply cannot truly locate all possible records without looking at the siblings and extended family.  You may find an aunt or uncle who has no children bequeath things to the children of your missing ancestor.  Information about your ancestor may be hidden inside a land record belonging to a member of the extended family.  Maternal grandfathers will bequeath directly to their grandchildren when their married daughter has died before them.  I understand your strong desire to take the line straight back but you simply cannot ignore the rest of the family without risking overlooking other potential records and information.

Another common mistake is not thoroughly researching people with duplicate or similar names.  For example, you are researching a John Livingston whose wife’s name was Mary and he worked as a butcher in Chicago, Illinois in the 1880s.  Should be easy, right?  You find in the records a John Livingston, butcher, wife is Mary and he lives on Michigan Avenue at 22nd Avenue.  But there is another one married to a Maria on 20th Avenue.  Also, another John working at a meat-market whose wife is not listed on 23rd Avenue; a Johan married to Martha on 25th Avenue who is a grocer, and finally, a John Livingston, butcher, married to a Mary on Michigan Avenue.  How do you know you have the correct one?  Without further research, you simply do not know and can inadvertently begin chasing the wrong line.

This is especially true when researching military records.  For example, I have previously discussed my ongoing research to determine which Banner Thomas was released from the Confederate Army to take up his elected position as a tax collector.  Was he the older one who we know had been a tax collector before the war or the younger one who we know was a tax collector in a neighboring county after the war?  Another example would be the three Joseph H. or J. H. Thomases who filed World War I draft cards from Appling County, Georgia.  Which one is my grandfather?  None, he filed from Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia where he was working with some of his brothers at the shipyard.  How am I sure?  Besides the date of birth, when mine filed he indicated he was not medically qualified due to being deaf in one ear and having a club foot, he also noted that he was short in stature.  Since I personally knew my grandfather, this one had to be his.  Once again, be sure you have confirmed you have the correct one.  But be careful not to overreact based on age.  Boys as young as 10 years old did run away and hang with the Army during war-time and later end up enlisting and older men did join or get drafted during wars.  Plus, you cannot take that one indication of age as accurate.  Did they lie to get in?  Are they old and really unsure of what year they were born?  We put a lot more emphasis on our birthdays in 2021 than they did in the 1700 and 1800s.

Next week I will give some final thoughts on avoidable mistakes.

Blog 2021 09 19 Tips and tricks with

If you are a true researcher, then you have used (FS) but have you used ALL of the features there?  Have you seen some of the new services they offer?  Let’s take a look at these.

Have you ever wanted to bounce your research off someone else or ask for advice in overcoming a brick wall?  You can now get help from a research consult either in person (where available) or virtually.  You can book a consultant for a free, 20-minute consultation once a week.  They are “Designed to provide you with research guidance, methodology, and next steps.”  You will be asked for some information concerning your family or specific issues when you submit the request so the consultant can be better prepared to help.  For more information, check them out at:

You know the frustration when you are searching for a record only to learn the only place that has it is the Family History Library (FHL) in Salt Lake City, Utah?  Or find that while there are copies around, none are within a reasonable drive but there is also a copy at the FHL?  You can now fill out a form listing the digital item or book item you are needing and they will find it and send it to you.  You do need the details of the specific item you are looking for.  For a book look-up, you may not have the page number but you can give the specific name and information (e.g. spouse’s name) you require.  These are 1 item per request.  They are not doing your research for you as you must provide them with sufficient information to prevent them from having to search, they can grab the microform and know the image number, or grab the book by title, call number, and author and have either the page number or the name being researched.  However, if the book is not indexed or easily searched, this type of request might get rejected.  Again, for more information on this and other new services please see,

I will say this unapologetically, the trees on FS are just as untrustworthy as those on and all other places.  However, you should not dismiss them unequivocally as they might lend you clues.  So do look at the trees for these for suggestions.  Be sure to look for sources and if they exist, thoroughly examine them with the idea discussed in last week’s blog.  Can you prove it wrong?  While others may have put up trees without any sources, they might still know something we do not.  Case in point, researching for a client whose widow and children carried the surname of Musselwhite, we were trying to determine her husband’s name.  One family researcher had a name that I have yet to prove existed.  However, when I communicated directly with them for a source, they had a family Bible started by the deceased granddaughter.  They were also on Ancestry and had taken a DNA test.  When we changed our tree to show the same information for the missing man, several others showed up in the ThruLines.  So, did we prove this man carried the alleged name?  No, we only proved that we have the same person in mind whose name may or may not have been what they had.  The reason why I say this is because I never found a single document with that name anywhere in the county or nearby counties.

Should this client decide to conduct further research on this family, she at least has a starting point.

There are two ways to research here, you can look at the FS world tree by selecting Search, Family Tree to see what others have; select Search, Genealogies.  Then you must click on the person’s name to see if they have any sources listed.

Take a look at the Research Wiki for locations or collections you are interested in.  If you select an area, it will tell you when it was formed and from what areas it was cut out from.  They list any known records lost from fires or other disasters.  Lists local agencies are nearby such as Genealogical Societies, Historical Societies, Libraries, and FHLs.  You can also click on find affiliate libraries where you can go and access the same images which are restricted to FHLs.

A large number of books are digitized and selecting Books from the Search drop-down will give you access to their book catalog where you can search for books just like any library.

Finally, the Catalog is under the Search dropdown.  Here, you gain access to the vast array of digitized records.  Many of these records are digitized microforms of what is in your local courthouses.  Some are indexed through FS, some you will need to open and look for an index at the beginning or end of the collection and many are not indexed at all.  It may be well worth your time to go through these books page by page if necessary.

If what you are looking for is not at the city level, try the county.  If not at the county, try the state.  To give you an idea of what I am speaking of, here is the list of topics and the number of items in each category from Pierce County, Georgia.



So you can see from the  list to the right, there are six items in the Probate Records area, eight under Public Records, and eleven court records.  Now look a bit further.  Each of these items lists a government entity as the author so you should be able to view them, if not from home, at a FHL or affiliate.  When the author is a person or agency such as Daughters of the American Revolution then it is a book and may not be digitized.

One final hint. Sometimes you see where a microfilm roll contains multiple items and you want to find your area quickly.  For this example, I will use the Tax Digest of Pierce County with multiple years as shown here.


Pierce’s records follow Milton, Miller, and Monroe Counties.  The fastest way to find the Pierce collection is to click the grid view and hit the minus sign until it no longer shrinks.  Then look for black squares indicating the end of a collection and the beginning of another.  Count for the fourth one and double click and judge against the list.  Did you get the fourth county of fourth entry, Monroe County 1868 – 69?  Using this format, find the one you want.  Same thing if you are looking at entries that are not indexed and cover multiple years such as Marriage Records covering 1860 – 1880 and you believe the marriage you are looking for was 1875, then look at the total number of images and select something about ¾ of the way through.  Enlarge it and see where you are.

One final thought, this does not override a visit to the actual courthouse or another repository when the opportunity avails itself.  Not every single record or ledger was scanned and you do not want to risk missing out on the material not scanned.

Good luck and Happy Hunting!

Blog 2021 09 03 GPS Standard #5: A soundly reasoned, coherently written conclusion

We now come to the last standard although we have touched on it several times, we must take our research and make it available to others.  Whether we publish it in a book or journal of some kind; simply put it online via one of the many websites; or simply leave it to be put into a library or other repository, we must write out our findings.  If you are simply leaving it in one of a myriad of genealogy software programs, many have spaces for notes where you can enter your conclusions on the items discussed below.

We need to show our research with sufficient source citing so followers can find the exact same source otherwise, as we discussed, it is no longer fact but speculation.  As I said, how formal the citation is depends on the method of publication but if you are relying on websites such as you cannot simply list the URL as it might change, you must state the location of the original.

You must explain any conflicts and how you determine the truth and sorted the people, events, or places.  You should provide sufficient documentation along with any reasonable analysis that drew you to a conclusion.  For example, to state that this 14-year-old girl in Georgia in the 1880s could not possibly be married having babies is not a reasonable conclusion because I will show you such cases.  But if you said she was less than 12 years old, then your conclusion is reasonable.  If you say the woman was over 40 your reasoning is flawed since my grandmother was 42 when my father was born and 45 when her youngest was born.  However, as I explained to a colleague who was absolutely sure one of the two daughters of this family was the biological mother could not be because at the same time the baby was born, that woman was married in Florida having a different baby.

You need to ensure you have done reasonably exhaustive research by looking at all reasonable possibilities.  Sometimes these can be ruled out quite quickly much like resolving conflicts.  I may have mentioned in a previous blog the case of two men of about the same age in Colorado.  One married the daughter of the First Baptist Church of Atlanta in 1890 making front-page news and the other was a member of the Five Civilized Tribes (FCT), specifically, the Choctaw.  The quick proof was that the member of the FCT was a former slave, the man who married the pastor’s daughter had to be a white man in the 1890s.

However, you put in writing (electronically or on paper) write up your findings and share them with others researching the same family or families.

Blog 2021 08 27 GPS Standard #4: Resolution of conflicting evidence

I touched on this a bit last week when I mentioned the multiple Banner Thomases in Pierce, later Appling, County.  There are many reasons we run into conflicting evidence and all too often people overlook or ignore them and simply concentrate on the person they are confident is the right one.

But I ask, how many times have you seen people with trees online that simply do not make sense?  I found one case where someone did not realize there were two men named Bolar Moon in the same county and between the two there were three marriages.  But this particular person had one man married to all three women, with marriages overlapping, and having kids by all three.

If we want our research to be accepted and believed then we simply cannot ignore evidence that conflicts with what we believe to be true for our research subject.  We must address it using the standards previously discussed, with evidence to support our conclusion, and then write it up.  Sometimes, we cannot directly or even indirectly resolve the conflict and we must speak to it still being an open issue.  Take for example one in my own family.  The elder Gilshot Thomas (Circa 1730 – 1792) had a son, Gilshot Jr. (Circa 1752 – 1809).  One of the two was arrested on a felony and transported to Savannah in 1787.  No court records have been located to show the charge or which Gilshot was charged.  Therefore any write-ups I might do would have to state that this conflict remains unresolved.  Since it does not directly relate to any proof of relationships (that I know of) then this conflict does not require resolution at this time.

However, as in the case of Ambrose Watson, I had compelling evidence that Elijah was his father until something popped up that indicated otherwise.  Upon further research, analysis and resolution, it was shown that Elijah was his brother, 21 years his senior.  Sometimes we want something to be true so we overlook conflicts but we absolutely must thoroughly research the issue, analyze it, and resolve it.  Particularly if it directly impacts establishing family relationships.

Without properly resolving conflicting evidence or information, all of our research is for naught as it can be easily picked apart by others.  Some things, which seem so obvious to us, might look entirely different to someone else.  I am reminded of a meme that has a large number painted on the ground.  The person on one side looks at it and calls it a six, the person standing opposite calls it a nine.  Without something to specifically indicate whether it is a 6 or 9 both are simply relying on a single perspective.

Do not shy away from such conflicts but look for clues to resolve them and commit them to paper, or computer files for others to use.

Blog 2021 08 19 GPS Standard #3: Thorough analysis and correlation

What exactly does this mean?  You cannot always take things at face value and must thoroughly look at all aspects of what you have found.  Also, you must not stop just because you think you have found your answer.  I was researching a Robert Watson and I had fairly convincing evidence his father was Ambrose Watson.

I found where an Ambrose Watson wrote his will in 1861 and died later that year.  In his will he nominates his son, Ambrose M. Watson, to be his executor and names his wife, Jane, and children; W. Thomas, John David, Jesse, and Luiza. [i] However, these are not all of his children.  The younger Ambrose dies without a wife or issue (biological offspring) two years later in the Civil War.  If we stopped here we would determine him to be the wrong father of Robert but always look at every piece of paper or document in an estate.  After the death of the younger Ambrose, the remaining children (led by Robert), all of whom had attained the age of majority, sued their deceased brother’s estate.  This forced the elder’s estate back into court, added the younger Ambrose’s property into the pool, and allowed the court to decide a fair division. [ii] By researching every part of that estate, we get the names of all children of the elder Ambrose by both his first and second wives.

If you look at the 1860 Census and find Ambrose, you will see children named who are not included in the above estate.  That is because this Ambrose is the nephew of the above elder Ambrose.  We must search for ALL people with the same or similar names to ensure we are accurately analyzing our findings and coming to a solid conclusion.  The natural reaction is to assume that every reference to a person with your ancestor’s name must be referencing your ancestor.  But it also means you must annotate all others with the same or similar names and show why the one you selected is correct.

This also means, only stating things as fact if they are based on solid evidence and not using unsourced evidence, authored work, or arbitrarily using other people’s research results.  As your school teacher used to say, Do Your Own Work.  You may find where someone did the research for entry to a lineage society such as Daughters (or Sons) of the American Revolution and that is not proof.  Thank them for their effort, take their work, and revalidate with skepticism.  Make sure that for every name being researched there are not others with the same name without identifying them and explaining why you are confident in that person.

I’ll explain with an example from my own family.  In Pierce County, Georgia’s Tax Digest for 1864, looking at the Thomas surname, there are two Jonathans, four James, and two Banners. [iii] Then if I were to look at the 1860 and 1870 U. S. Census records, there are more.  How do I prove which Banner is mine?  I would use the other Banner who was listed as “Banner, Sr” to be the uncle of “Banner, Jr” by the fact that the elder Banner was in a different Militia District and the Uncle is administering the estate, on two sons who died in the Civil War, and by virtue of being the estate administrator responsible for the taxes.

About the same time, there are two Thomas cousins with the same name and again, one is older and was the tax collector in Ware County before Pierce County was created from portions of Ware before the Civil War.  After the Civil War, the family later moved just north to Appling County and the younger was the tax collector.  During the Civil War, they both had Pierce County addresses and both served in the Civil War but with different Regiments.  One was elected tax collector of Pierce County and was discharged from the Army to serve the term.  But which?  Both descendants claim it was their ancestor and until I can prove once and for all which, I will not make that claim due to unresolved conflict.

[i] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Will Book E, Pages 127-128, Will of Ambrose Watson, 28 August 1861, Probate Court, Spartanburg County courthouse, Spartanburg, South Carolina, image, ( accessed 6 April 2020).

[ii] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Probate Court, Real Estate Book 1853 – 1881, page 439, Spartanburg County courthouse, Spartanburg, South Carolina, image, ( accessed 27 April 2020).

[iii] Pierce County, Georgia, Tax Digest for 1864, microfilm, Georgia State Archives, Morrow, Georgia, multiple pages.

Blog 2021 08 12 GPS Standard #2: Complete and accurate source citations

Many people will ask, “Do I really have to write a fully sourced citation to the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) or other such standards?”  Not to sound like Certified Genealogist and Lecturer Judy G. Russell but the answer to this question is, It Depends.

What it depends on is what do you intend to do with your research writings?  If you plan to only put it into your personal notes or genealogy software, then you do not need to do it to that standard.  If however, you plan on publishing your results in any manner whatsoever to include self-publishing, then you should meet the minimum standards.  If you plan to submit it to a genealogical society journal, you will need to meet their standard which is almost identical to the CMS.

So what is the minimum standard?  It is still hitting the main points of the CMS or Elizabeth Shown Mills’ book, Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace, Third Edition Revised, Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, Maryland, 2017.

Dr. Thomas W. Jones, in his book, Mastering Genealogical Proof, NGS, Arlington, Virginia, 2013, takes a slightly different approach from Mills’.  Regardless, everyone agrees that citations are an art and not a science and therefore open to some interpretation.  Even this library guide put out by Indian River State College has their viewpoint,  However, they all agree that the minimum that should be in a citation is the below items.

  1. Who?  Not who is being referenced but who is the source of the information or the creator of the record.  Such as Appling County, Georgia, Probate Court.
  2. What?  What the title of the record is such as Marriage Book D (1850 – 1885).
  3. When?  Signifies when the record, book, CD, Newspaper, or microfilm was published.
  4. Where?  Where in the source is the information you are citing.  For U. S. Census records, we put the County, State, City or Township, Militia District, or Other; Post Office location when listed; Supervisor and Enumeration District (SD and ED) when available; Dwelling and Family numbers are preferred over line numbers.  The reason is, most of the schedules (supplemental census records) will use the SD, ED, Dwelling, and Family numbers to link the supplement’s record back to the specific family record on the population schedule.
  5. Where is the original record and where did you find it?  This one is very important, DO NOT use URLs as they change.  You must list the location of the original such as Appling County Courthouse, Baxley, Georgia, Superior Court.  Then you can say or etc.

The bottom line is, can someone pick up your research and readily go find the exact record you looked at.  So many people get hung up over style such as US Census vs U. S. Census vs U. S. census, vs….  Who really cares?  That is my thought and not indicative of anyone else in my profession.  But frankly, I do not care how you write census for those in the United States because I am smart enough to know what you mean.  However, if you mean Birmingham, England and just write, Birmingham, unless all other records have clearly indicated British research, then you have erred.  Anyone looking at your research must immediately know not to look in Alabama for your Birmingham records.

I hope this clears up a lot of the confusion.

Blog 2021 08 05 What is “Reasonably Exhaustive Research?”

Blog 2021 08 05 What is “Reasonably Exhaustive Research?”


One of the tenets of the Board for Certification of Genealogists is the first of five elements of the Genealogical Proof Standard which is, “A reasonably exhaustive search.”  But what does that mean?


It means several things.  To start, do not stop proving something simply because you found one document that supports it.  I have a family Bible that says my Great Great-grandparents were married on 2 November 1880 but the county marriage license and the register shows 1881. [i] Had I stopped at the Bible records I would have the wrong answer.

A recent Genealogy Scavenger Hunt I am running shows the famous silent movie director, Clarence Leon Brown in the 1900 U. S. Census at age 10 living with his father, Larkin H., born in Pennsylvania, and his mother, Catherine, born in Ireland. [ii] However, the birth register shows Larkin was born in Georgia.  If you assume either one is correct alone, you have not conducted “A reasonably exhaustive search.”  We must always try to find no less than two but preferably three documents to support the event.

We must also weigh the specific document to determine which we trust over the other.  In the case of Clarence, the enumerator did not note who gave him the information, and census records are typically less reliable than others.  However, in this case, it is correct.  Using several other records including the 1870 U. S. Census from Delaware County, Pennsylvania, shows a 4-year old Harry, born in Pennsylvania along with his younger brother Hugh, living with his parents and older siblings all of whom were born in Georgia. [iii] To be honest, several documents had conflicting information but the above 1870 census is closer to the fact than the others and does corroborate statements later made by Leon.

In the case of my ancestor’s marriage, the primary reason may have been to conceal the fact that she was already pregnant at the time of their marriage.

When doing research, once again, I reiterate, look for no less than two documents to support the fact and preferably three or more.  If there is any conflict between the three, then further research is required to determine the truth and document the reason for that determination.


[i] For particular reasons I cannot divulge the specific names involved here.  Family Bible personally held by author.

[ii] 1900 U. S. Census, Worcester County, Massachusetts, population schedule, Grafton Town. Supervisor District 1940, Enumeration District 1633, page 4 (inked) B, Dwelling 77, Family 88, household of Brown, Larkin H., image, FamilySearch ( : access 30 July 2021), citing NARA publication T623. Roll 692.

[iii] 1870 U. S. Census, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Borough of South Chester in Chester Township, Village Green Post Office, page 29 (inked), Dwelling 218, family 223, household of Brown, J. M., image, ( :accessed 30 July 2021), citing NARA publication M593, Roll 1336/1337.